50 Carrier Oils For Skin
CARRIER OILS - PROPERTIES FOR SKIN
With carrier oils (as with people) the most glamorous are not necessarily the most useful....
Some appear to be rich in all the right bits, but how and if your skin can utilise these is more important.
- Açai oil -Euterpe Oleracea:This is absorbed quickly and can get down deeper than most. It is also a very good anti-oxidant, in part due to the high anthocyanins content, more than in grapes used to produce red wine. It is also a good anti-inflammatory, used for dermatitis, unwanted cell proliferation and in preparations for mature skin. It has the highest fruit oil content of phytochemicals including vitamins: B1, B2, B3 C and E. With high oleic and linoleic fatty acids.
- Average fatty acids% :Oleic acid 55; linoleic 50; palmitic 18; stearic 1.5; a-linolenic 1.52
- Almond oil (Sweet) It is actually a fruit, not strictly a nut. It has been used for thousands of years for consuming and for hair and skin. It is absorbed well, a good humectant, useful in slowing trans epidermal water loss (TEWL), prevalent in mature skin. It doesn’t penetrate very deeply, but can be mixed with others that do. A good phytosterols spread of: Vitamins A, B and particularly E with calcium, iron, biotin, zinc, magnesium and a nice balance of fatty acids including high Oleic acid. It can improve eczema, sunburn, scaly patches, itchy skin and scalp and is anti-inflammatory. It can be used on sensitive skin as it tends to be gentle and can improve eczema, sunburn, scaly patches and itchy skin and scalp.
- Average fatty acids: Oleic 70; linoleic 25; palmitic 7; stearic 1.5; a-linolenic .5 : Glucosides, minerals, vitamins, oleic acid and sterolins.
- Amaranth Seed oil: An antioxidant which may be useful in stimulating cell renewal. Has a high squalane content, at about 7%, so is moisturising and can improve weather-damaged and dry skin.
- Average fatty acids%:Oleic acid 25; linoleic 48; palmitic 20; stearic 4; Linolenic 1.5; myristic .5
- Andiroba seed oil - Carapa guaianensis :
- Particularly emollient and helpful to dry skin and possibly help skin elasticity. It has been used for both eczema and psoriasis and to help wounds heal faster, all with good results. It is rich in antioxidants and vitamins A, C and E.
- Average fatty acids: oleic 50; palmitic 28; linoleic 11; arachidic 1.2; palmitoleic 1; stearic 8.1; a-linolenic 1.3
- Apricot kernel oil - Prunus armeniaca:
- A fairly light oil that can calm the over-production of sebum and is a good choice for sensitive skin. Moisturising, emollient and anti-inflammatory, with good phytochemicals; high levels of b-sitosterol, mostly vitamin E, 20% of which is tocopherols, together with a reasonable amount of vitamins A and C. These make it helpful in reducing acne and to repair UV damaged skin.
- Average fatty acids%: oleic 65; palmitic 5-7; linoleic 25
- Argan oil - Argania spinosa:
- A light to medium viscosity, it is quickly absorbed and hydrating. Anti-inflammatory properties, from the sterols and one of the highest vitamin E content and reasonable carotene. It has been used on mature skin to smooth lines and for acne scars and stretch marks.
- Average fatty acids: oleic 46; palmitic 14; linoleic 33; arachidic .4; stearic 5.5; a-linolenic .5; eicosenoic .5
- Avocado seed oil- Persea gratissima:
- This oil is light and easily absorbed, moisturising and penetrates well and leaves the skin very soft. The oil has only been extracted for just over one hundred years. It contains vitamins A, B1, B2, D and is very high in Vitamin E. A good balance of lecithin and phytosterols. It has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and blends well with other oils - a little goes a long way. It is unusual in that it can create collagen synthesis, making it excellent for healing wounds, eczema, psoriasis and sun damage, including solar keratosis. Very high oleic acid, makes it a good choice for sensitive skin.
- Average fatty acids %: oleic 75; palmitic 16; linoleic 12; palmitoleic 8; stearic 1.5; a-linoleic 4
- Babbasu oil: Orbignya oleifera:
- Medium viscosity, but very moisturising, very emollient and can sooth itching and improve dry skin. It contains vitamins A and C, calcium, iron and a good range of fatty acids. The high myristic acid makes this a good choice for skin barrier repair and any skin inflammation. It is has been used to help eczema, dry skin and hair.
- Average fatty acids %: lauric 47.5; myristic 14; oleic 12; capric 8; palmitic 7; stearic 2; linoleic 1
- Baobab oil- Adansonia dititata:
- Rich and hydrating with medium viscosity, but still astringent. It contains vitamins: A, E and F and has anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties. A good oil for sensitive skin. The high palmitic acid suggests makes this a good choice as an anti-microbial oil.
- Fatty acids%: oleic 35; palmitic 20; linoleic 30; stearic 6; a-linolenic 2
Borage seed oil -Borago officinalis:
This becomes rancid very quickly, so addIng vitamin E or a chelator increases the shelf-life. A very light oil, with tannins that make it astringent. It penetrates well and can increase ceramide synthesis. It is gentle on damaged skin and has been used for eczema, psoriasis and redness -5-10% in another oil carrier oil works well. It can also relieve an itchy scalp and hair loss and is as effective as evening primrose oil in reversing epidermal hyper-proliferation. The main polyphenolic is ferulic acid (see rice bran) and it is a better antioxidant than Vitamin E. The high gamma-linoleic and linolenic acids help normalise barrier-function. It can reduces UV damage and melasma.
Not recommended during pregnancy.
- Fatty acids%: G-Linoleic 38; g-linolenic 25; oleic 18; palmitic 11; eicosenoic 4; stearic 10; Gadoleic acid 4%, erucic 3. nervonic 2
Blackberry Seed oil: Rubus fruticosus:
Rich and softening and able to penetrate deeper than a number of oils. It is very high in vitamin C. The high Linoleic acid makes this a good choice for impaired barrier-function and repairing damaged skin.
- Fatty acids%: g-linoleic 63; oleic 15; palmitic 3.5; stearic 2; a-linolenic 15
Black Currant Seed oil: Ribes nigrum:
A very rich oil with a lightly seaweed scent. This has a balanced fatty acid profile making it a good choice for rejuvenating mature skin. With good anti-inflammatory properties.
- Fatty acids %: linoleic 47; g-linolenic 16; oleic 10; palmitic 6; stearidonic 3; stearic 1.5
Black Seed Oil - Nigella sativa:
- A deep coloured, rich oil; very concentrated and moisturising. It has been used for thousands of years in wound-healing and conditioning skin and hair. The high vitamin A content helps sun damage, melasma and acne scars. It also has a high vitamin B and C content.With continued use, it has been shown to improve eczema, psoriasis and dry skin
- Use with caution if pregnant.
- Fatty acid %: Linoleic 56; oleic 24; palmitic 12; stearic 2.5; arachidic 1.5; myristic .5; a-linolenic .25
- Blueberry seed oil. Very nourishing and an excellent anti-oxidant. It contains carotenoids and vitamin E. The gamma-linoleic content makes this a good choice for skin with sun-damage, scars and impaired barrier function. High also in vitamin C, which makes it useful in stimulating elastin-depleted skin.
- Fatty acids %: g-linoleic 42; oleic 20; palmitic 5; stearic 2; a-linolenic 28; arachidic 1; eicosenoic .4
Brazil nut oil: Bertholletia excelsa
A light, hydrating oil with Vitamins: A,B,C and E and one of the highest selenium contents. A good oil for most skin types, especially mature and dry skin. It has been used to sooth eczema and psoriasis and has good antioxidant properties.
- Fatty acids %: oleic 45; myristic .5; palmitic 23; stearic 8; linoleic 35; arachidic 1; palmitoleic 1
- Broccoli Seed Oil - Brassica oleracea italica.
- A very moisturising and conditioning oil, which penetrates well without feeling oily. A good choice to protect from sun damage and the sulforaphane can stimulate the production of glutamine in the skin. So it is also a good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.
- Fatty acids%: erucic 50, oleic 13, linoleic 10, a-linolenic 8, eicosenoic 5, palmitic 3
- Camellia Kissi Oil: Clear, light and non greasy. Easily absorbed, a good choice for sensitive and oily skin. It has good anti-oxidant properties and contains vitamins: A,B,C and E. It has high levels of plant collagen which can help prevent keloids & scars forming. The polyphenols are natural antioxidants. It has the highest concentration of oleic acid which makes it feel luxurious, but the tannins stop it from feeling oily.
- Fatty acids%: Oleic acid 80, linoleic 10, palmitic 8, stearic 2, arachidic 1
- Carrot seed oil - Daucus Carota Sativa: A moisturising oil, especially good for mature skin. Generous beta carotene, provitamin A help repair skin, reduce scarring and improve the barrier condition. It is a good anti-inflammatory and can help itching, improve scars and Relieve burns. Contains vitamins: B,C,D and E.
- Fatty acids%: oleic 68; palmitic 3.5; linoleic 11; stearic 7; a-linolenic .2
- Castor oil Ricinus communis
- One of the oils in use for millennia. A heavy viscosity but easily absorbed and can penetrate deep into the skin (it shouldn’t be used with ingredients not wanted in the skin (artificial colours and perfumes etc). Wit humectant properties and wound -healing. It can also be applied to abdomen and covered with a cloth, to alleviate abdominal and liver conditions. Very helpful to inflamed and dry skin and can calm itching.
- Fatty acids%: ricinoleic 90; oleic 6; palmitic 2; linoleic 6; stearic 1.5; a-linolenic .5
- Cherry kernel-Prunus avium
This oil has an unusual profile, particularly the eleostearic acid which is possibly responsible for the tumour growth. reductions reported in animal tests. It can reduce the absorption of UVA light. High in vitamin A and E compounds - the tocotrienols have excellent antioxidant qualities; one of the highest in carrier oils. In the rose family, this oil is generally a useful one for most skin types.
Fatty acids: linoleic 44; oleic 32; eleostearic 12; palmitic 7; stearic 2; arachidic 1; a-linolenic 1;eicosenoic .4
- Chia seed oil - Salvia columbariae:
- Medium viscosity, with humectant and hydrating properties. Contains vitamins: A,B,D,E and K. It has a good supply of alpha-linolenic acid, an excellent antioxidant and potential collagen-booster. The anti-inflammatory properties can help dry, inflamed skin, eczema, psoriasis and lessen scar tissue formation.
- Fatty acids %: linoleic 21; oleic 8; palmitic 7; stearic 2; a-linolenic 59
- Coconut oil-cocos nucifera : (unrefined)
- Solid at room temperature, a light liquid viscosity when warmed. Contains Vitamin E tocopherols, squalene and sterol, making it moisturising, protective and non-greasy. It may help both oily and dry skin to regain balance and is suitable for most sensitive skins. With some natural sun protection.
- Fatty acids %: lauric 50; linoleic 2; myristic 22; caprylic 10; oleic 10; capric 10; palmitic 10; stearic 4
Cranberry seed - Vaccinium macrocarpon:
A very conditioning, deep orange coloured oil with a light feel, due to the tannins in the oil. Similar to blueberry oil, it is also absorbed well. It has antioxidant properties from the provitamin A carotenoids. The tocopherols in the Vitamin E help with free-radical damage. It can be useful in treating eczema and other dry, itchy or inflamed skin conditions due in part to the b-sitosterol content. Elastin and collagen are also kept in good condition. Fatty acids %: linoleic 44; oleic 22; palmitic 6; stearic 2; arachidic 1; palmitoleic .5
- Evening Primrose oil - Oenothera biennis
- A light, astringent oil, good for mature skin and can correct epidermal hyper-proliferation and increase ceramide synthesis. It can help reduce breast pain. An excellent anti-inflammatory, it is useful for sensitive skin, dry skin, scars and eczema and dermatitis.
- Fatty acids: G-linoleic 75; g-linolenic 11; oleic 11; palmitic 7; stearic 2; arachidic 2; eicosenoic 2; A-Linolenic
Flaxseed oil - Linum usitatissimum
A viscous, emollient oil. With a good supply of vitamin E, it can help prevent stretch-marks and scarring. With good anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. It can help acne, eczema and psoriasis and is astringent.
- Fatty acids: oleic 38; palmitic 8; linoleic 18; stearic 4; a-linolenic 65
- Grapeseed oil-Vitis vinifera: A very short shelf-life, so add vitamin E to lengthen this. A fairly light viscosity which is easily absorbed. It is considered an astringent oil, so non-greasy. It is made from the seeds, discarded in wine-making, so an excellent use of otherwise unwanted materials! It has been used for thousands of years for skin diseases It is an antioxidant, it can help loosen dead skin cells, anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal properties and has a lot of vitamin E - tocopherols (14iu). It is one to consider for sensitive skin. Avoid buying grapeseed extracted by hexane - use cold-pressed instead.
- Fatty acids: Oleic 25; palmitic 8; linoleic 75; stearic 6; a-linolenic 1; palmitoleic .5; Vit E 14iu
- Hazelnut oil - Corylus avellana: A light, astringent oil, that is both emollient and moisturising. It is high in vitamins B6 and E, polyphenols and proteins.It is used to promote wound-healing and strengthen skin capillaries in rosacea. A soothing oil, with some natural sunscreen.
- Fatty acids: oleic 85; palmitic 5; linoleic 11; stearic 4
- Hemp seed oil - Cannabis sativa: (Different plant from THC)
- A light oil that is well absorbed, but has a poor shelf life. It is a humectant and can improve barrier function and acne, due to the good supply of linoleic acid. It was used by the ancient Chinese 8,000 years ago on hair and skin. It is perfectly balanced, excellent for all skin types and it doesn't clog pores. Vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B6, C, D, E, good protein and chlorophyll. the phytosterols are mainly ß-sitosterol @ approx 5ml per K, these can behave like cortisol in that they reduce itching, gamma-linole also helps this and barrier-repair. The Vitamin E has a high level of gamma tocopherol (about 85%) and the carotenoids are also anti-oxidant, free radical scavengers. So it has excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. One of the best all-rounders.
- Fatty acids: Oleic 15; palmitic 8; linoleic 58; stearic 3; a-linolenic 25; g-linolenic 4 ; arachidic 3; eicosenoic .3; behenic .2
- Jojoba oil - Simmondsia chinensis:
- Strictly, this is a liquid wax, not an oil that is easily and quickly absorbed. This has a fatty acid profile similar to human sebum, and has a high number of wax esters, so is usually well-tolerated and can improve the skin barrier. It dissolves the sebum in clogged pores and has been used to improve seborrheic dermatitis and dry, flaky skin.It has antioxidant properties, partly due to the vitamin B, E, copper, silicon and zinc which is also helpful for a number of skin conditions, including 'cradle cap' scars and stretch-marks.
- Fatty acids %: oleic 25; palmitic 3; stearic 1; a-linolenic 1; palmitoleic 1; eicosenoic 80; erucic 20
Kukui nut oil -Aleurites moluccans:
A light oil that absorbs well, but only a little is needed, more and it can be greasy. Very good for dry and chapped skin, eczema and psoriasis. It contains vitamins: A, C and E with a well-balanced fatty acid profile.
- Fatty acids %: oleic 30; palmitic 10; stearic 7; a-linolenic 40; arachidonic 1; lauric 1; myristic 1
- Macadamia nut oil- Macadamia ternifolia seed:
- Emollient and quite oily but it is very protective for dry skin and is absorbed well. It has general levels of vitamin A, B6 and E, so it is regenerative, can help skin cell regeneration and collagen repair. It is used to heal wounds and sunburn. It balance sebum in skin and adds shine to hair.
- Fatty acids%:oleic 60; palmitic 10; stearic 5; arachidic 2; palmitoleic 20; linoleic 2; eicosenoic 3
- Marula Oil -sclrtocarya birrea :
- Non-greasy, and humectant, due to the phytosterols. Over 98% fatty acids and naturally occurring tocopherols make this oil unusual and very useful. Very good oxidative stability/low rancidity. Absorbs well for most skin and is antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Phospholipids nourish skin cell walls and aid absorption and can help protect the barrier function.
- Fatty acids%: Oleic 70; palmitic 10; stearic 7; linoleic 6; myristic 1.5; arachidic .5; a-linolenic .5; erucic .5
- Meadowfoam seed oil - Limmanthes alba
- A very long lasting, stable oil, with a shelf life of 4 years or more - due to the long chain fatty acids. Possibly the best oil moisturiser for skin and hair. High levels of vitamin E - tocopherols makes it antioxidant and conditioning for skin.
- Fatty acids%: Gadoleic 60; brassic 16; erucic 12; oleic 3
- Neem oil- Azadirachita indica
- A deep coloured oil , solid at room temperature, with a strong scent. If the smell isn't off-putting, this is a good oil for sensitive skin and can help sunburn, eczema and psoriasis. It has a significant Vitamin E content and is also very good in hair. It is antibacterial and anti-fungal but should not be used on animals or children. Even on skin, it is better diluted with a thinner oil, like coconut.
- Do not use during pregnancy.
- Fatty acids %: oleic 55; palmitic 15; stearic 20; a-linolenic .5; myristic 3; arachidic 3.5; lauric 1
- Olive oil - Squalane: Olea europaea
- From a deep gold to green colour. A heavy oil, which still penetrates well and is high in fatty acids. There is a big difference between extra virgin oil and refined oil: the former has about 80% fatty acids compared with just 55% in refined oils. It also contains useful proteins and Vitamin E and K. It is effective on both dry skin and dry hair and can be very soothing. With antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, it can be used on a number of inflammatory skin conditions, bruises and for some, it helps acne (due to the high oleic acid, it can also worsen acne for others).The squalene makes up about 50% (this is produced in human skin until about age 35 and is vital to vitamin D synthesis) and tocopherols about 250mg per kilo - Vitamin E It is high in both phytosterols and polyphenols..The oleuropein has been shown to improve help sun-damage and melasma, so this can be useful just after sun exposure and to help limit sun damage.The polyphenols and fatty acids doe vary depending on the region, how it is made and whether or not it is refined.
- Fatty acids%: oleic 75; palmitic 12; stearic 3; linoleic 15; palmitic acid 10%, palmitoleic 2; a-linolenic 3; arachidic .5
- Pomegranate seed oil -Punica granatum
- A very rich, dark oil, which is unsaturated - to extend its shelf-life, adding vitamin E should help. Used for centuries in skin-care. It is anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory. It contains Punicic acid, which is a rare and very useful, conjugated fatty acid (omega-5). It helps skin regeneration and increases elasticity, whilst protecting the moisture balance and skin pH. It is also high in polyphenols, flavonoids, phytosterols (four times higher than soybean) and vitamin A - these help the antioxidant effect and can reduce irritation and itching. The polyphenols contain gallic aid, which enhance wound-healing and ellagic acid (found in mango and borage seed oils), which is used to support collagen synthesis.As it also helps fade melasma, scars and helps prevent moisture loss, it is one of the top choices for mature skin, that might be beginning to show signs of wear and tear.
- Fatty acids %: Punicic 75; linoleic 6; oleic 5; palmitic 2; stearic 2; gadoleic trace
- Peach kernel - prunus persica
- Very emollient, but moisturising, silky and light to the touch. Like apricot, rosehip and almond oils, also from the rose family, this penetrates well. It has hight vitamin A and E and reasonable vitamin Bs. It is usually tolerated by sensitive skin and vey helpful to mature skin.
- fatty acids % oleic 60; linoleic 30; palmitic 7; stearic 3; a-linolenic 1; palmitoleic 1; arachidic 1.
- Pumpkin seed oil : Cucurbita pepo
- A dark, thick, emollient oil with quite a nutty scent. This suits most and is usually tolerated by sensitive skin. It is moisturising and nourishing and can help regenerate skin cells, mostly due to the high vitamin A, E and zinc content. It has antioxidant properties and can reduce redness and itchy skin.
- fatty acids %: linoleic 55; oleic 25; palmitic 10; stearic 5; arachidic .2
- Raspberry Seed: Rubus idaeus
- A very light oil that penetrates very well. Moisturising and conditioning, leaving a dry feel too skin. It is used to sooth eczema, psoriasis and other inflammatory skin conditions. It is currently under consideration as a broad spectrum sun protector, with an SPF of over 30. It has very high vitamin E and pro-vitamin A, so helps mop up free-radicals and helps the skin's function.
- fatty acids %: linoleic 50; a-linoleic 21; oleic 10; palmitic 2; stearic 1
- Black Raspberry Seed Oil: Rubus occidentalis
- A longer shelf life than the red oil, otherwise quite similar, but with four forms of Vitamin E: alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, beta tocotrienols and gamma tocotrienols.
- Rice Bran Oil (INCI: oryza sativa)
- A medium viscosity which penetrates well, is softening and moisturising, but probably too oily for acne-prone skin. It has vitamins B, E and squalene (0.5%). 2% y-oryzanol, a phytosterol unique to rice bran. This is a mixture of ferulic acid esters or sterols and triterpene alcohols.The vitamin E and ferulic acid makes this an effective antioxidant, that can reduce melasma and sun-damage and the y-oryzanol extends this. Otherwise, it is similar to sesame oil, often used to stimulate hair growth and is a good anti-inflammatory.
- 16 palmitic, 42 oleic, 36.6 linoleic , 2 stearic, 1.5 linolenic acids.
- Rosehip seed oil: Rosa rubiginosa
- This has no rose scent, just a mild herbal smell. Light viscosity and considered astringent, without an oily feel. With a good vitamin A (a trans-retinoic acid)- the depth of colour is a good indicator of the amount of carotenoids in the oil. This oil has been used for wound healing and skin care in most ancient civilisations. It contains 60 times more vitamin C than any other citrus oils. The vitamin E is also high enough to make this a good anti-oxidant. It can help cell regeneration and strengthen skin and is used to treat eczema and psoriasis and scars. Excellent for dry and mature skin, it can promote collagen production and has a nice balance of equal a-linolenic and linoleic acid (40%).
- fatty acids %: linoleic 45; a-linoleic 30; oleic 15; palmitic 4; stearic 2; arachidic 1; eicosanoic .5; behenic.5; myristic .25
- Sea buckthorn oil : Hippophae rhamnoideshas
- This oil can be extracted from the pulp and the seeds - the best results are from combine oils. .It has a very distinctive medicinal/herby scent and is a thick orange oil (this can stain)- high in carotenoids and provitamin carotenes.It also contains vitamin E and C in significant amounts, vitamin B1 and B2 and vitamin K. These are a regenerative combination and why it is often used, despite the smell. It can help skin repair, including mucous membranes. The oleic acid softens and moisturises whilst the linoleic acid supports barrier function and water loss (TEWL).It is also a good antioxidant.
- fatty acids %: linoleleic 34; a-linolenic 10 (seed) palmitic12-28; oleic 8; elaidic 5-15; 4 (seed); linoleic 5 (pulp); a-linolenic 2 (pulp); stearic 4 (seed); myristic 1.5 (pulp); palmitoleic 1.
- Seasame oil (unrefined) - Sesame indicum (Benne, Gingle or Teel oil)
- A viscous feel, moisturising and very well absorbed. it is noted for being absorbed deeper than most oils, in the lower layers of the stratum corneum and still demonstrate an antioxidant effect. It has been used as a wound-healer for centuries and is antibacterial and antiviral, with some natural sun-protection and sun-damage healing ability. A good supply of vitamins A,B and E, protein, calcium, lecithin and zinc helps it to modulate sebum product and so may help acne, eczema, psoriasis, clogged pores and spots. It is also used to darken hair colour.
- Fatty acids: Oleic acid 42, linoleic acid 40, palmitic acid 10, stearic 5, a-linolenic .5, Eicosenoic .5, palmitoleic .25.
- Vitamin E, Quite oily, but good for dry skin. Combine with Vitamin C for sun protection. It works to block free radicals so can help scars heal faster, and as these play a large part in the aging process, it also reduces wrinkles. It has basic antioxidant properties and protects the skin against cell mutation. It's also an anti-inflammatory, calms and hydrates sensitive skin. It can hydrate and moisturize dry, brittle hair. Can be used as a skin-brightening agent.
- Wheatgerm oil: Triticum vulgare
- A very moisturising oil, often used in skincare for mature and very dry skin. It is full of nutrients including: Vitamins: A, B1, B2, B3, B6, D, E and F. It is a good antioxidant and the properties can stimulate skin renewal and help restore the skin barrier.It is also rich in protein and lecithin, so helpsr irritated cracked skin and quite gentle. It is also used in haircare, to restore shine to dry hair.
- Fatty acids%: Linoleic 58; oleic 30; palmitic 15; a-linolenic 9; stearic 5.