Lightening and Brightening Serum
Improve dull, uneven and discoloured complexion and sun-induced melasma.
Dark pigmentation can be caused by a number of things: hormonal changes, spots, cuts, UV light and hundreds of drugs can cause it too. It tends to be more prevalent as we age and begins deep in the skin, where the melanin is stored. Melanin is triggered when skin is damaged and it travels up to the surface where it becomes dark spots or a mottled appearance. A multi-pronged solution is necessary to address both the production and transfer of unwanted melanin.
This formulation addresses both uneven colour and texture. We use three naturally-derived acids for the first stage: azelaic, salicylic and kojic. Too much tyrosinase causes skin to produce excess melanin and these three acids help prevent it from forming. Tetrahydrocurcumin is used to reduce the oxidative stress that increases sunlight-induced hyperpigmentation, and with niacinamide it inhibits the melanin transfer into skin cells. A-arbutin (derived from bearberry), is safe and effective, as it slowly releases hydroquinone. (Concentrated hydroquinone is used to treat hyper-pigmentation under medical supervision.)
Vitamins A,C,E and hyaluronic acid help establish a healthy lipid/water balance and reduce the transepidermal water loss (TEWL). If the skin becomes dry, dark patches can look worse. Extracts of rose and honeysuckle both have polyphenols well known for keeping skin supple and bright and they are both exceptionally soothing, especially for inflammation. Skin can become more sensitive to sunlight when using this serum - a broad-spectrum sun cream is advised.
Chandorkar et al; April 2021 - Alpha Arbutin Skin Lightening.
Saeedia et al; Feb 2019 - Kojic acid applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations.
Demirkan Et al; May 2017 Retrospective Analysis of Endemic Melasma Patients
Debabrata Bandyopadhyay; Dec 2009 - TOPICAL TREATMENT of MELASMA
A S Breathnach; Jan 1996 -melasma, topical treatment with azelaic acid, and other therapies
Hakozaki et al (Proctor&Gambol); Aug 2002- Niacinamide…suppression of melanosome-transfer.
Paul Matts; Jan 2002 - The range of effects of niacinamide in human skin.
Ingredients: Rose Damascene distilled flower water; Lavender angustifolia grosso distilled water; Glycerin; Lonicera japonica flower extract; Decyl oleate; l-Glutamine; Oenothera biennis flower extract; Borago officinalis seed oil; Niacinamide; Prunus Amygdalus dulcis oil; Isoamyl Laurate (Gosulin); Urea; Tocopherol oil; Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate; Punica granatum seed oil; Cetyl alcohol; Soy lecithin; Argania Spinosa Kernel oil; Polysorbate 80; Persea Gratissima oil; Mono propylene glycol; Glyceryl stearate; Panthenol; a-arbutin; Tetrahydrocurcumin; Kojic acid; Rosa Canina fruit oil, Avena sativa kernel flour; Hyaluronic acid; Zinc oxide; Azaleic acid; Xanthan gum; Phenoxyethanol, caprylyl glycol; Salicylic acid; Sodium hyaluronate; Ferulic acid; Aloe Barbadensis leaf powder(1/200); Titanium dioxide; Triethanolamine. Phenyl ethyl alcohol; Citrus limon fruit oil; Pelargonium graveolens flower oil, Nerodiol; Illicium verum fruit oil; Pogostemon cablin leaf oil; Sandal pentanol; Daucus carota sativa seed oil; Limonene, Linalool; Citronellol; Geraniol; Geranyl acetate; Coumarin; Linalyl Acetate; Cinnamaldehyde; Citral.